Building Materials

Building Materials
Mineral materials

There are two broad categories of minerals used as building materials: those that are used in their natural state, and those that are used as ingredients to manufacture building materials.

  • Stone used in its natural state include:
  • Alabaster
  • Granite
  • Limestone
  • Marble
  • Sandstone
  • Slate
  • Travertine
  • Stone and minerals used as ingredients include:
  • Chalk
  • Clay
  • Diatomaceous earth
  • Dolomite
  • Ganister
  • Gypsum
  • Lime (Limestone)
  • Marl
  • Pumice
  • Sand
Plant materials

Generally, plants are also divided into two broad categories: those that produce wood, and those that produce other non-wood building materials. For a discussion of wood, see the “Wood” category. Some non-woody plants that are used as building materials include:

  • Cane (bamboo, reed, rattan)
  • Cork (Cork oak, Quercus suber)
  • Eelgrass (Zostera spp.)
  • Reed (Phragmites australis)
  • Rice straw (Oryza sativa)
  • Sorghum straw (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Wheat straw (Triticum spp.)
  • Willow (Salix spp.) Note: while willow is a woody plant and is used as such, its bark is also used as a building material.
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