There are two broad categories of minerals used as building materials: those that are used in their natural state, and those that are used as ingredients to manufacture building materials.
Stone used in its natural state include:
Stone and minerals used as ingredients include:
Generally, plants are also divided into two broad categories: those that produce wood, and those that produce other non-wood building materials. For a discussion of wood, see the “Wood” category below. Some non-woody plants that are used as building materials include:
Cane (bamboo, reed, rattan)
Cork (Cork oak, Quercus suber)
Eelgrass (Zostera spp.)
Reed (Phragmites australis)
Rice straw (Oryza sativa)
Sorghum straw (Sorghum bicolor)
Wheat straw (Triticum spp.)
Willow (Salix spp.) Note: while willow is a woody plant and is used as such, its bark is also used as a building material.
From the Crazy Useful Catalog:
Crazy Useful Things
A Dictionary of Natural Resources and Their Products