Cod is a name that refers to the two species of fish in the genus Gadus, in the Gadidae family. They are the Pacific cod (G. macrocephalus), and the Atlantic cod (G. morhua). Of these, the Atlantic cod is by far the most intensively commercially fished. It is highly valued for its meat, which is rich in vitamins A and D, and the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. In addition, the liver is processed to produce cod liver oil, a popular dietary supplement since at least the time of the Vikings. During the 19th century it was given to children to prevent rickets (a bone deformity caused by vitamin D deficiency). Today it is taken as a prevention against heart disease due to high cholesterol.
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